Camões Mission – Institute for Cooperation and Language
Camões – Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua, I.P., in short Camões, I.P., is a public institute, integrated in the indirect administration of the State, with administrative and financial autonomy and its own assets, pursuing duties of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs under its supervision.
Camões, I.P., mission is to propose and implement the Portuguese cooperation policy and to coordinate activities undertaken by other public entities involved in implementing that policy and also to propose and implement the educational policy, to disseminate the Portuguese language and culture in foreign universities and to manage the foreign Portuguese teaching network at primary and secondary levels.
The Camões, I.P., duties in the cooperation domain are:
- To propose the definition of the cooperation and the official development assistance policy;
- To promote the implementation of programmes, projects and cooperation activities for development cooperation with other ministries and organization sectors;
- To prepare the pluri annual programmes of development cooperation, as well as its financial planning;
- To coordinate the Portuguese Development Cooperation Budget Program, as well as all other cross-cutbudgetary instruments, annual or pluri annual, whose goal and purpose is the development cooperation;
- To ensure the supervision of planning activities, programming, implementation and evaluation of the cooperation programmes and projects developed by other ministries, departments, services and Public Administration bodies;
- To issue a preliminary opinion on the cooperation programmes, projects and activities financed or conducted by the State, its bodies and other public entities;
- To ensure the coordination and articulation of development cooperation with the authorities of beneficiary countries;
- To ensure that projects directly developed by Camões, I.P., are financed according to the performed programming;
- To proceed to identification, analysis, supervision and evaluation of results, arisen by the implementation of programmes, projects and activities within development cooperation, to improve the rationality, effectiveness and efficiency of this aid;
- To ensure the coordination and articulation with international, national, regional and local institutions, including the non-governmental organizations, in order to optimize resources;
- To ensure and coordinate the Portuguese interventions in humanitarian and emergency aid areas; Support initiatives of civil society in the context of development cooperation;
- To provide subsidies, scholarships and other forms of financial support, within cooperation programmes, projects or activities;
- To ensure, within its duties, the Portuguese participation in the activities, related to cooperation, inside the Community of Portuguese Language Countries;
- To ensure technical and logistical support to the Forum for Development Cooperation meetings;
- To promote and support the studies in the cooperation area;
- To centralize the information related to the overall financial load of the Portuguese cooperation; Implement a communication strategy to strengthen understanding and public support to development cooperation;
- To promote training activities in development matters;
- To ensure the representation and participation of the Portuguese state in international organizations activities related to cooperation and public assistance to development, taking into account the Ministry of Finance competences with regard to international financial institutions and also adequate specialized sectoral representations;
- To centralize information regarding cooperation projects promoted by private entities, with or without public sponsorship, and to ensure the Portuguese state representation in international debates about cooperation and public assistance to development, supporting the principle of international convergence and common goals.
The Camões, I.P. duties in the area of Portuguese language and culture external promotion are:
- To ensure the Portugal’s representation in negotiation of cultural agreements and respective cooperation programmes, coordinating the participation of State departments, with attributions in the areas of culture, education, higher education, youth, sports and media;
- To establish programmes to support the creation of Portuguese chairs and departments or equivalent structures in foreign universities and schools and to support teachers local hiring;
- To promote, coordinate and develop Portuguese language courses and other cultural subjects , either in a face-to-face system, either by using information and communication technologies;
- To develop, in cooperation with Portuguese or foreign universities, assessment instruments and certification of pedagogical-didactic skills systems for Portuguese teaching and learning as well as Portuguese communication skills;
- To establish partnerships and support the development of studies and research works concerning the Portuguese language and culture presence and status, particularly from the perspective of its international dissemination;
- To conceive, promote, propose, support and execute the production of works and projects for the dissemination of the Portuguese language and culture abroad;
- To encourage, support and promote activities that favour the dissemination and international exchange of diverse Portuguese artistic expressions, particularly in major international exhibitions and events;
- To establish guidelines and priority areas of intervention in Portuguese cultural centres abroad, as well as proposing its creation;
- To provide scholarships funding and other supports resulting from cultural agreements or Portuguese language and culture dissemination programmes, in accordance with Rules of Procedure;
- To coordinate lecturers and lectureship activities of Portuguese language and culture;
- To develop and coordinate teachers training activities in the areas of Portuguese language and culture;
- To develop necessary mechanisms for strengthening the teaching network within foreign educational institutions, namely through the creation of Portuguese language centres;
- To promote the celebration and supervision of cultural cooperation agreements;
- To edit Portuguese language and culture divulgation materials through different media channels;
- To coordinate the activities of the Portuguese language and culture teachers abroad and to promote the interaction between different levels and types of education;
- To ensure the quality of Portuguese language and culture teaching abroad, through the adequate scientific and pedagogical support;
- To encourage the teaching of Portuguese language as a non-native and as a foreign language throughout curriculum development and educational systems, particularly in countries with Portuguese speaking communities.
In the context of pre-school, primary and secondary education of Portuguese teaching abroad, in articulation with the Ministry of Education and Science, Camões, I.P., is responsible for:
- The qualification of the Portuguese language teaching abroad, namely in the development of complementary forms and models of certification and evaluation of the respective learning environments as well as accreditation and transfer of the respective academic credits;
- The development of appropriate mechanisms for teacher training, especially for Portuguese as a second language, for teaching in Portuguese communities and also for Portuguese culture the diffusion;
- The promotion of creation and dissemination of pedagogical and cultural learning materials, specifically for the Portuguese language teaching services abroad;
- The coordination of Portuguese language and culture teacher’s activities abroad, at primary and secondary school levels;
- The development and promotion for using platforms of Portuguese teaching and e-learning and the Portuguese culture dissemination through virtual platforms;
- The dissemination of the Portuguese language teaching abroad, throughout Portuguese Schools under the Ministry of Education and Science.
Together with Camões, I.P., works the Interministerial Comission for Cooperation, whose composition, competences and respective regulations are set out in ordinance, to be approved by the Government members responsible for finances and foreign affairs.
(Lei Orgânica do Camões - Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua, I.P., Decreto-Lei n.º 21/2012, de 30 de janeiro)
(Estatutos do Camões - Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua, I.P., Portaria n.º 194/2012, de 20 de junho)
1 — The advisory council is the consultation, support and participation body in the definition of the general performance of Camões, I.P., and it gathers, at least once a year, in accordance with the rules of procedure.
2 — The advisory council consists of:
a) The president of Camões, I.P., who presides, the vice president and members;
b) A representative of each member of the Government responsible for foreign affairs, the economy, education, higher education, science and technology, culture, youth and the media;
c) The director-general of foreign policy, the director-general of European affairs , the director-general of consular affairs and Portuguese communities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
d) Five persons of recognized merit in the areas of education, research, arts and sciences;
e) One representative of each of the associations of trade unions of teachers, integrating the trade union confederations based on the permanent comission for social coordination.
3 — The advisory council is responsible for:
a) Expressing its opinion on the activity plan and report of Camões, I.P., in the area of the Portuguese language and culture;
b) Giving an opinion about the training plans related to the Portuguese language teaching abroad;
c) Giving an opinion on the network planning of the Portuguese language teaching abroad;
d) Giving an opinion on the establishment of Portuguese cultural centers and the coordination structures of the Portuguese teaching abroad;
e) Giving an opinion, by its own initiative or upon the President's request, on the relevant initiatives to the continuation of Camões, I.P., tasks in the area of the Portuguese language and culture;
f) Contributing to the Camões, I.P., articulation with the governmental bodies and public services to which it relates in the pursuit of their duties, in the area of the Portuguese language and culture.
(Lei Orgânica do Camões - Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua, I.P., Decreto-Lei n.º 21/2012, de 30 de janeiro)
Development cooperation is a priority of the Portuguese foreign policy, which emphasizes the values of solidarity and respect for human rights.
The coordination of the official development assistance is carried out by a single organism, Camões - Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua, I.P. which also ensures the supervision and the direction of the cooperation policy.
Being the main State agency for the development cooperation policy, Camões, I.P. aims to improve the Portuguese intervention and to ascertain greater emphasis in co-operation policy and compliance with the international commitments undertaken by the Portuguese State.
Camões I.P.'s endeavour purports to promote economic, social and cultural development of Portuguese-speaking countries, as well as to improve the living conditions of their populations.
The Office of Evaluation and Audit (Gabinete de Avaliação e Auditoria - GAA) aims to deepen the knowledge about the implementation of programmes and projects and their results and effects, to support the decision making based on evidences and promote the continuous improvement in the areas of intervention of Camões, I.P., contributing to the rationality, efficiency, effectiveness and economy management.
In accordance with the article 6 of the Portaria nº194/2012 of June 20th (statutes of Camões I.P.,) the duties of GAA are:
- To evaluate the implementation of programmes, plans and projects, depending on the defined objectives, directly or through an external evaluation;
- To propose the terms of reference and select the responsible entities for the internal or external evaluation of programmes, projects and actions;
- To collaborate in joint evaluations with other partners, including international organizations and congenerous services in other states;
- To produce technical information in the evaluation area, disseminating information about the evaluations results and proposing mechanisms for the incorporation of the gained experience in programming and in programmes, projects and future actions;
- To promote internal and external audits to the Camões, I.P., services, in accordance with the approved standards.
The GAA/Camões, I.P., also evaluates cooperation programmes and projects developed by other ministries, departments, services and public administration bodies, to improve the rationality, efficiency and effectiviness of the aid (point 2, subparagraph e), DL 21/2012, of January 30th (Camões organic).
The evaluation is part of a rationalization process of the public sector in Portugal aiming to achieve significant improvements in their areas of productivity and quality of response having, in what concerns cooperation, the underlying principles internationally subscribed since the Declaração de Paris and the need to increase the aid effectiveness. In this line, the evaluation function is to make known the results (outputs), effects (outcomes) and impacts of the Development Cooperation interventions, so that the resources management could maximize the results.
The audit is an independent activity, of objective assessment and consulting, forming a process that involves the management and the human resources and that aims to contribute to:
- The effectiveness and efficiency of services, in accordance with the established goals;
- The ease of the process of internal communication of the different services of Camões, I.P.;
- The reliability of operational and financial information;
- The improvement of the system's internal control system and self-correction;
- The reinforcement of the management responsability at all levels, ensuring, in particular, the compliance with the policies, objectives, plans, rules and regulamentations;
- Make a proper management and risk control.
The audit covers all the activities pursued by Camões, I.P., or by which it is responsible. It should measure the fulfillment degree of the objectives; ensure quality and the efficient use of resources.
The audit services work in close collaboration with the other services of Camões, I.P., to jointly define solutions and implement materials and models to improve the internal management.
Camões, I.P., provides a database of evaluators. The registration in this database is non-binding. The individual and collective entities that have competences to evaluate the interventions in the areas of Portuguese language, culture and cooperation may register.
The application form and curriculum vitae should be sent to: GAA@camoes.mne.pt
Humanitarian Aid is, by definition, any action that contributes immediately and effectively to minimize the effects from catastrophes of various kinds among the populations directly affected by them.
The Divisão de Apoio à Sociedade Civil (Division of Civil Society Support), in accordance with the competences assigned to it, should be able to identify, analyze, propose and monitor the emergency and humanitarian aid.
The Humanitarian Aid provided by Camões - Institute for Cooperation and Language has focused on several countries from different continents, specifically countries classified as of strategic priority for the Portuguese Cooperation, that is to say, Portuguese-speaking countries.
Among the most relevant documents for action in the area of the Humanitarian Aid are:
Good Humanitarian Donorship
Good Humanitarian Donorship (GHD) is a set of principles and good practices agreed by a wide range of donors and humanitarian actors in Stockholm, in 2003,. The challenge facing the international humanitarian community is to harmonize the practices of each humanitarian donor, not only within its system of cooperation, but also, individually, to attempt to adopt and to satisfy these principles as international actors that should act in a coordinated and predictable way.
Portugal adhered to these principles and good practices in 2006
GHD meetings are held annually and are intended not only to evaluate the progress made, but mostly to contribute to the adoption of national plans of GHD and promote the disclosure, dissemination and implementation of these principles by the donors.
European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid
The European Consensus on Humanitarian Aid provides a Common vision to guide the EU's action in humanitarian aid in third countries, concerning both Member States and the Community.
The humanitarian aid is a fundamental expression of the universal value of solidarity between peoples, as well as a moral imperative.
Humanitarian crises include natural and man-made disasters. Its effects are increasingly devastating due to factors such as the changing nature of conflicts, climate change, the increasing competition for access to energy and natural resources, extreme poverty, bad governance and situations of fragility. The main victims are civilians, often the poorest and most vulnerable people, the majority of them living in developing countries. Humanitarian crisis have given rise to large numbers of displaced people, both refugees and internally displaced people.
As a Member State of the European Union, Portugal actively participates in the definition of the community's development cooperation. Within its duties, Camões - Instituto da Cooperação e da Língua:
- Monitors and ensures the coordination of the Portuguese position in the Working Groups of the EU Council concerning the community policy for development cooperation:
- Ensures the Portuguese representation in different European Commission Funding Committees:
- Prepares and monitors the work in the area of Development of the Foreign Affairs Council, of the ACP-EU Ministers Council, of the Meetings of General Directors for Development and of experts on topics related to the development cooperation policy.
- In addition to participating in the definition of development policies, Portugal, as a Member State, contributes financially to the implementation of these policies, which are managed by the Commission.
In 2010, through the Ministry of Finance budget, Portugal contributed with 124,44 million Euros (1, 55%) - Community Budget and 33,42 million Euros (1, 15%) - European Development Fund
The European Commission has put online the Annual Report 2011 on the European Community's Development and External Assistance Policies and their Implementation in 2010 (http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/files/publications/europeaid_annual_report_2011_en.pdf) accompanied by the respective working document that discriminates the implementation of policies and actions in 2010.
It was also published online the EU Donor Atlas 2011 (http://www.enpi-info.eu/main.php?id_type=1&id=26007) - an interactive tool that provides an overview of the work undertaken in the development area by the Member States and the EU worldwide in 2009, which includes data concerning Portugal. This tool allows specific queries by donor country, business areas, regions or beneficiary countries. It is also possible to search by key areas, such as Global Trends, Accountability, Millennium Development Goals, Conflicts and Fragility, Education, Population and Health.
The Community Policy on Development Cooperation is complementary to the cooperation policies of the 27 Member States in EU and is managed by the European Commission.
To promote the economic and social development of developing countries, particularly the most disadvantaged, in order to eliminate poverty and integrate them, smoothly and gradually, into the world economy.
To develop and consolidate Democracy, Rule of Law, respect for the Human Rights and fundamental freedoms.
This policy is guided by the European Consensus on Development, of November 2005. It is a policy statement adopted jointly by the Council, Commission and European Parliament, which sets the general framework of action by the Union and the Member States in the development cooperation area, demonstrating the EU's commitment to eradicate poverty and build a more stable and fair world.
This common vision for development defines the values, goals, principles and commitments that will be implemented by EU's development policies, namely:
The Community Policy on Development Cooperation is thus based on the principles of:
Aid Effectiveness – Donors and partners have sought to increase and also improve the quality of aid provided so that the global commitment to the Millenium Development Goals is to be achieved.
The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) has defined 54 commitments, 12 progress indicators and goals up to 2010, based on five fundamental principles: Ownership, Alignment, Harmonisation, Managing for Results and Mutual Accountability.
In the Accra Agenda for Action (2008) donors and partnersreaffirmed their commitment to aid effectiveness, including 48 new commitments, 34 of them endorsed to donor countries, including:
Coordination and Complementarity with the Member States and other international actors.
The complementarity of donor activities is of capital importance to increase effectiveness and a necessary condition to eradicate poverty and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
The Code of Conduct on Complementarity and Labour Division in Development Policy, adopted by the EU in 2007, follows the principles of ownership, alignment, harmonisation, Managing for results and mutual accountability embodied in the Paris Declaration, and is guided by the goals and additional values outlined by the European Consensus.
In order to fight the excessive aid fragmentation, the overlap of activities, the inequalities between countries and/or "orphans" and "beloved" sectors and to reduce transaction costs, the Code sets out the general principles and 11 framework principles that should guide the donors performance:
Coherence of European Policies with development objectives.In a world increasingly globalized and interdependent the EU Member States recognize the need for greater coherence between policies that affect, directly or indirectly, the Developing Countries.
Aid alone cannot end poverty and generate growth. Policy areas such as agriculture, trade, migration and security, among others, have a deep impact on development issues.
Policy Coherence for Development purports to ensure that the development objectives will not be weakened by other policies with external impact and, if possible, that these policies contribute to them. This implies a multilateral and consistent approach to the issues, analysis of the existing interrelations and solving and mitigating conflicts of interest.
The European political commitment towards the Policy Coherence for Development has gradually increased since the 90s. The legal basis was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht (1992), complemented by the Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) and by the Treaty of Nice (2001) and reinforced by the Treaty of Lisbon (2009).
Traditionally cooperative relations between the European Union and Africa are established through three frameworks:
1. North Africa - Euro-Mediterranean Partnership + Neighbourhood Policy
2.Sub-Saharan Africa - Partnership Agreement EU-ACP (Cotonou Agreement)
3. South Africa - Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement
In order to improve coherence and to complement the dialogue and cooperation established through the EU-North Africa, EU-ACP and EU-South Africa frameworks, the First EU-Africa Summit of 2000, in Cairo, under the Portuguese Presidency of EU ,started a new stage in the European Union's relationship with the African continent, aimed to establish a new strategic dimension of the global partnership between Africa and Europe for the twenty-first century, destined to strengthen the existing political, economic and cultural ties through the creation of an effective framework for the promotion of a constructive dialogue on political, economic, social and development questions.
The II EU-Africa Summit, also under the Portuguese Presidency of EU, was held in Lisbon, in December 2007. There, the Africa-EU Joint Strategy was adopted in order to establish a political partnership, going beyond donor-receiver development aid relationship. Bilateral issues as well as common global challenges were discussed and a continental approach was promoted, considering Africa as whole (pan-African approach) and focusing on individuals.
The Joint Strategy will be implemented through successive Action Plans that identify the main political objectives in a short term, establishing the agreements in terms of policies, programmes and specific measures. The Action Plan for 2008-2010 was structured around eight Partnerships, in the following areas:
- Peace and Security;
- Democratic Governance and Human Rights;
- Trade, Regional Integration and infrastructure;
- Millenium Development Goals;
- Climate Change;
- Migration, Mobility and Employment;
- Science, Information Society and Space.
For each one of the partnerships were established Joint Expert Groups comprising representatives of the interested African and European states, in addition to the EU and Africa Committees. Portugal co-chairs artnerships 2 and 8.
The III EU-Africa Summit was held in Tripoli, in November 2010. The overall theme was "Investment, Economic Growth and Job Creation". It was adopted a joint Declaration that contains the conclusions and commitments assumed, as well as the Action Plan for 2011-2013 which will give continuity to the actions of the eight partnerships identified in the Joint Strategy agreed in the Lisbon Summit.
The ACP-EC Agreement, called "The Cotonou Agreement" has an extent of 20 years and is subject to five-yearly reviews. It is the largest integrated agreement signed between a group of developed countries (the 27 EU Member States) and a group of developing countries (77 ACP States):
Africa: 48 Countries
Burkina Faso *
Central African Republic *
Cape Verde *
Equatorial Guinea *
Democratic Republic of the Congo*
Sierra Leone *
São Tomé and Príncipe *
Caribbean: 15 Countries
Pacific: 14 Countries
* Least Developed Countries (LDC)
The EC has an extensive network of programs and cooperation agreements with developing countries and regions based on political dialogue, financial cooperation and economic and commercial cooperation.
Development cooperation agreements and programs are financed through funds from:
1. The Community Budget
Heading 4 (External Relations) of the EU Financial Perspectives for 2007-2013, includes portions intended to finance various instruments to support development, including:
Financing Instrument for Development Cooperation (DCI), with a total of 16,897 million Euros, subdivided into:
European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) with a total of 1.103,7 M€.
2. European Development Fund (EDF)
Specifically devoted to supporting ACP States (in the scope of the ACP-EC Partnership Agreement), the EDF consists of Member States contributions, calculated according to a specific distribution key.
Each Convention and Agreement was allocated with a specific fund with a five year duration.
Currently (2008-2013), the 10th EDF is in force and has a duration of 6 years with a financial envelope of 22.682 M€
3. European Investment Bank (EIB)
Through granting loans, under the external aspect of its activities, regulated by a series of mandates assigned to it by the EU to support development and cooperation policies in third countries, specifically for the ACP region, the EIB operates using its own resources and moneys from EDF.
Community Aid Programming
Community development aid programmes are laid down based on Strategy Documents of Countries and Regions signed with beneficiary countries and regions.
Programming and definition of community aid strategies are currently assigned to the following Commission services:
The European External Action Service (http://eeas.europa.eu/index_en.htm), established under the scope of the Treaty of Lisbon and in the dependency of the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, is the service responsible for the diplomatic relations of the Union and for the definition of political guidelines and cooperation strategies with developing countries.
The Development and Cooperation – EuropeAid (http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/index_en.htm) was established in January 2011 and resulted from the merger of the former General Directions of Development and EuropeAid. Its purpose is to elaborate the European development policy and to implement cooperation programmes and projects.
The Cooperation Strategies by country (or region) are defined based upon:
The Country Strategy Papers complement support strategies and programmes developed bilaterally by the Member States. They are delineated based upon the the interventions processed the Member States and by other donors in each beneficiary country. The Papers are used, as well, as a framework for the definition of programmes and actions developed for each country.
You can get here (http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/acp/country-cooperation/index_en.htm) the Country Strategy Papers related to each country and ACP regions.
According to the rules set out by the Cotonou Agreement, the Strategy Papers and respective National Indicative Programmes shall be submitted to annual operational reviews, mid-term and at the end of the EDF programming cycle in question. The objective is to allow a regular update of the intervention strategy of the Community, as well as the reassessment of the moneys taking into account the needs and the performance of each of beneficiary country.
Adjudication of Aid
The EU external aid can be provided through Grants or contracts for financing of works, supplies and services in the beneficiary countries:
Grants are assigned to projects submitted by external organizations (usually non-profit organizations), selected through calls for proposals. The call for proposal indicates the EU funding priorities, the eligibility criteria for this purpose and other funding conditions.
Contracts for the execution of works, supplies and services are awarded through a competitive tendering on projects identified by the EC and the beneficiary countries.
For research on funding and respective procedures please refer to the websites:
Call for proposals (http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/work/funding/index_en.htm)